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美国移民律师界力挺USCIS前局长 吊销数万绿卡?

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 楼主| 发表于 2015-3-30 03:32:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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国土安全部(移民局上级部门)检察长办公室(OIG)发布了对于前移民局局长AlejandroMayorkas(现国土安全部副部长)的调查报告,指控其操纵EB-5项目的审批速度及结果。



美国政界和媒体一片喧嚣,支持者有之,反对者有之,更有甚者,有中文媒体已经在牵强的把之前USCIS吊销24家区域中心授权的事,扯进来一起讲了,说数万字张中国人的美国绿卡都会被吊销掉。且不说,这个吊销的24个区域中心与OIG的报告毫无关系,而且几乎没有几个投资者通过这些被吊销的区域中心获得过绿卡,就算是通过AlejandroMayorkas所牵涉到的项目所获得的绿卡,也不是说吊销就吊销的,项目本身并未问题,被诟病的是加快审批流程的问题,何来吊销绿卡之说。更何况,美国人还没吵完呢,AlejandroMayorkas副部同志安然在任,尚未被定性为老虎,中国媒体咋就能下断言吊销绿卡了呢。

今天还是来看一篇专业点的文章,媒体怎么吵那是媒体的事,看看移民律师业界的支持声音。本文来自ILW.com(ImmigrationDaily)的刊首文章,有业内朋友Christina义务翻译,特此感谢。

昨晚,美国OIG(国土安全局检查长)发表了一篇关于前USCIS(移民局)局长AliMayorkas(现在美国国土安全部副部长)就EB-5相关问题的报告。

其实在开始解读这篇长达99页的报导时,我们就已经有心理准备肯定这一长篇报导肯定会抨击Mayorkas先生的。但是,在细细阅读这篇报导后,我们发现其实这篇报导是在为Mayorkas先生辩护。

首先,在大家的心里都有这么一个标准,政府的腐败是无法被忍受,和美国的道德水准背道相驰的,并且对美国公众有害。就此而言,OIG是在与贪污,腐败做斗争,即使是表面在战斗,我们也应该强烈的支持这一反腐行为。这篇自由言论的主要作用就是预防政府腐败行为(一件最基本的常识,在今天却被美国国民忽视),而这一点也正是,为何自由媒体是维一一个受到美国宪法保护的行业,的主要原因。ImmigrationDaily严守职责,在美国媒体的传统阵地,OIG完全可以信任我们对于反腐的支持。

不过,USCIS是一个失控的政府机构,OIG报告已经提供有力的证据,证明Mayorkas先生在移局的努力实际上是健全了EB-5审案程序。

附在报告中的,Mayorkas先生的陈述里,他指出:“在我任职美国移民局局长期间,从公众那接到最通常的投诉就是美国移民局这一机构对案子给出的不同裁决,并且没有依照法律”(OIG报告第68页,所有页面请参考OIG报告)。毫无疑问,Mayorkas先生是正确的,ImmigrationDaily的广大读者们,都可以去验证,USCIS对于移民事务进行裁决时,非常多的宣判结果都是不合法律要求的。另外,USCIS还有一个最另人厌烦的一点就是(与其他联邦机构不同),其拒绝遵守RESJudicata(既判力规则)。一但联邦机构依赖规则处理事务时,这些按规则处理的事务,也会合理预期按规则来解决问题。相反,USCIS相信,它可以随意撤回其已批准的申请,并且在整个移民体系下经常如此(不仅限于EB-5)。OIG报导还暗示,Mayorkas先生坚持遵循先例是一个问题,并且意指USCIS的任意自由裁量权是正确的国家政策:“另外一个官员写到,看起来[批准初始的单个申请]是一个低级的错误,而且,对我来说尊从该错误是荒诞可笑的”(第28页)。换句话来说,OIG认为USICS应当保留其自由任意的裁决权去犯“低级的错误”,然后通过变更审批,而使得人们的生活起起落落,或者在中场改变游戏规则也是OK的。

对于USCIS来说,当然更好的方法是在最初阶段就避免这些错误的出现,但是OIG报告并没有讨论这个问题。Mayorkas先生进一步阐述到:“我需要指出的是,普通来讲,在USCIS内部存在(包括USCIS的领导层),抵制与公共参与,抵制我设立公共参与办公室,抵制我计划在政策备忘录中收集公众反馈的努力。他们更倾向于执行USCIS以往的封闭策略“(第89页)。毫无疑问,Mayorkas先生的对的,在USCIS官员中审理移民案例中对申请个案一直保持的是强烈的神秘感,好像所有案子就是需要秘密的审核,就像我们ImmigrationDaily的读者每天所经历的一样。但是,让我们听到更加准确的消息,显然USCIS的有些同事已经被激怒了,美国商务部的一名官员甚至知道将此封信函发至给哪位:”我不记得之前见过这些人的观点,并且好奇他们怎么知道应该将此封信函发给谁呢,我害怕我们逐步进入一个全新的烦人阶段。“(第34页)

我们建议那些想在USCIS继续实行,保持USCIS的封闭的人是”烦人一族“。OIG的报告看上去是支持USCIS封闭式的运营模式,当然我们认为这是极其错误的主张。如果有机构需要更加透明化那么,那么则一定是USCIS。ImmigrationDaily在得知Mayorkas先生对USCIS感到失望时,表示一点都不惊讶。“Mayorkas回复到他参与到其中是因为他对管理这个计划的人没有信心”(第21页)。自然而然,Mayorkas先生做了一些改变去“支持变革”(第3页),我们鼓励未来的USCIS局长更加努力,更加频繁的支持变革。

在EB-5计划中Mayorkas做了两大杰出贡献,第一点他将RESJUDICATA(既判力规则)引入到EB-5,我们鼓励将其扩张到移民体系的每个角落中:“除非有理由去深信之前的裁决结果在事实和法律上有客观的错误,那么USCIS在EB-5进程中将不需要重新审核先前的裁决结果”。除非materialchange(事实变更)、欺诈,或者蓄意谎报,USCIS不应再次审核先前的载定结果,比如:商业计划书是否完整并且可靠,或者经济分析模型预估的工作岗位是否不合理“(29页)”,引用自2013年USCIS的5月30号备忘录。如果类似的原则运用到H1B的审理过程或者I-140S!那么给雇主和移民申请人带来预测可能性,除此之外移民律师都将会成为每一个咨询客人的英雄,因为律师给出的建议是可以依赖的。

第二点,Mayorkas先生,重建了EB-5计划,包括:将加利福利亚的审理中心迁至华盛顿特区,另外,他创立了广泛的新准则,在很多USCIS雇员的意识中,这简化了一个国外投资者获得居住权的能力(第3页)。。。”。在2012年6月,Mayorkas先生,宣布他将会在USCIS的总部创立一个新办公室的计划,而这一新办公室将用于更好的管理EB-5法案。加利福利亚EB-5审案中心迁至总部的新办公室,其后被更名为IPO(移民投资移民计划办公室)。

问题在于,对于USCIS很多人来说,他们努力并且大声说“No”,在实施中以骚扰移民者为娱乐,反对移民主议者用“国家安全”这一套伪装说词强烈的表明他们讨厌移民者或者新移民,而这一观点被深深值入加利福利亚审理中心,并且在没有通过USCIS管理层监管下,实行反移民粗暴行为。(在加利福利亚中心的许多反移民主义者们联合抨击管理层,以免他们攻击无辜的移民)。自然,这些可恶分子将会去到OIG诉苦,在移民者面前明显地包庇保护告密者。

再一次,为表明OIG在与USCIS腐败做斗争,或者即使只是在表面看来是如此,我们也会大力支持OIG的,但是OIG在提及或者指正Mayorkas先生创新EB-5是错误的这一章节,明显超出其专业的领域”。OIG完全没有理解制度化官僚主义政策对USCIS专横的意义,尤其OIG设想反Mayorkas在USCIS只是一种淳朴的,或者是说在政府机构的恰当行为。正是OIG的这些错误,危害到这篇报告可能有的价值。我们建议可以狭义阅读该报告-当成一篇有不当影响,但没有不恰当政策的文章。通过狭义的阅读,总的来说,我们十分支持OIG阻止人事政治和官僚行为的腐败行为。

Comment: OIG On EB5Yesterday evening, the Office of Inspector General at DHS (OIG)released a report (see news item below) on former USCIS DirectorAli Mayorkas (currently DHS Deputy Secretary) regarding severalEB5-related matters. When we began reading the 99-page report, wewere prepared to write an editorial comment criticizing Mr.Mayorkas. Instead, after a close reading of the report, we findourselves defending Mr. Mayorkas.

Let us first note that we believe that corruption in Government isintolerable, and inconsistent with American mores, and inimical tothe health of the American Republic. To the extent that OIG isfighting corruption, or even the appearance thereof, we stronglysupport such efforts. The primary function of a free press is toprevent corruption in Government (a commonplace that is oftenforgotten by Americans today), and this is the primary reason whythe free press is the only industry specifically protected in theUS Constitution. Immigration Daily takes its responsibilitiesseriously, in the tradition of the American trade press, and OIGcan count on our unstinting support on any anti-corruptionmatter.

However, USCIS is an agency out of control, and the OIG Reportprovides ample evidence that Mr. Mayorkas's efforts actuallybrought a measure of sanity to EB5 processing.

As Mr. Mayorkas points out in his statement appended to the Report:"When I became Director the most common complaint from the publicabout the agency was that it rendered inconsistent adjudicationsand failed to adhere to the law" (OIG Report at Page 68, all pagereferences that follow are to the OIG Report). Mr. Mayorkas isundoubtedly correct, and the vast majority of Immigration Dailyreaders can attest to the arbitrary nature of USCIS adjudicationsin all immigration matters, too many of which fail to abide by thestatute. One of the particularly annoying peculiarities of USCIS(as opposed to most federal agencies) is that it refuses to followthe principle of Res Judicata. Once a federal agency rules on amatter,

those regulated by it have a reasonable expectation to relyon the rule as applied, as a settled matter. Instead USCIS believesit can revoke approved petitions at will, and frequently does so,throughout the length and breadth of the immigration system (notjust EB5). The OIG Report implies that Mr. Mayorkas's insistence onfollowing precedent is a problem and implies that arbitrarydiscretion at USCIS is correct national policy: "Another officialwrote, 'It appears that [the decision to grant the initial singlepetition] was a simple mistake. And it is absurd to me to accorddeference to simple mistakes'" (Page 28). In other words, OIGbelieves that USCIS ought to reserve to itself the unfettereddiscretion to make "simple mistakes" and that turning human livesupside down by revoking approvals, or changing the rules of thegame in mid-game is A-OK. The better approach would be for USCIS toavoid making those mistakes in the first place, something notaddressed by the OIG Report. Mr. Mayorkas further states:"I shouldnote that, as a general matter, some within USCIS (including somewithin USCIS leadership) resisted engaging with the public,resisted my creation of the Office of Public Engagement, andresisted the practice I began of posting for public comment ourdraft policy memoranda. They preferred the insularity that USCIShad exhibited for years" (Page 89). Mr. Mayorkas is undoubtedlycorrect in that USCIS officials treat immigration case processingas if it were a mystery religion that must be practiced in secret,as Immigration Daily readers experience every day. But let's hearit from the horse's mouth - apparently some at USCIS were irkedthat an official at the US Department of Commerce even knew who toaddress a letter to: "Another staff member noted in an email, 'Idon't recall seeing these folks opine before and wonder how theyeven know who to send this to. I fear we are entering a whole newphase of yuck'" (Page 34). We suggest that those at USCIS who wantto keep who to address at USCIS as a secret are the yucky ones. TheOIG Report seems to support a closed method of functioning atUSCIS, which we believe is utterly wrong - if ever an agency neededmore transparency, USCIS is it.

Immigration Daily is not surprisedthat Mr. Mayorkas was disappointed by the status quo at USCIS: "Mr.Mayorkas responded that he was involved because he had 'noconfidence in the people administering the program'" (Page 21).Naturally, Mr. Mayorkas made changes to "get to yes" (Page 3), andwe encourage all future USCIS Directors to strive harder to get toyes much more often.Two undoubted achievements stand as Mr. Mayorkas's shining legacyin the EB5 program. Firstly, he brought a form of Res Judicata toEB5, and one which we encourage expanding to all corners of theimmigration system: "Unless there is reason to believe that a prioradjudication involved an objective mistake of fact or law, USCISshould not reexamine determinations made earlier in the EB-5process. Absent a material change in facts, fraud, or willfulmisrepresentation, USCIS should not re-adjudicate prior USCISdeterminations that are subjective, such as whether the businessplan is comprehensive and credible or whether an economicmethodology estimating job creation is reasonable" (Page 29);quoting May 30, 2013 USCIS memo. Imagine a similar principleapplied to H1B processing or I-140s! It would bring predictabilityto employers and immigrants across the land, and immigrationattorneys would be seen as heroes who give advice which theirclients can count on. Secondly, "[Mr. Mayorkas] restructured theEB-5 program, including relocating the processing center fromCalifornia to Washington, DC, and he instituted broad new rulesthat, in the minds of many career USCIS employees, eased theability of foreign investors to receive residency status (Page3)... ... "In July 2012, Mr. Mayorkas announced his plans to createa new office at USCIS headquarters for administration of the EB-5program. EB-5 adjudications were transferred from the CaliforniaService Center to a newly created headquarters office, later calledthe Immigrant Investor Program Office" (Page 32). The problem withmany career USCIS employees is that they strive hard to say No, andpractice harassing immigrants as a form of entertainment - but thespecific problem with the California Service Center is that it hasbeen infiltrated by anti-immigrationists who mask their personaldistaste for

immigration under the guise of "national security" andare on an anti-immigrant rampage without being checked by USCISmanagement (many anti-immigrationists at the California ServiceCenter have unionized precisely to frustrate management ability tocontrol their personal onslaughts on hapless immigrants).Naturally, these miscreants run to cry on OIG's shoulder, coveringup their blatant prejudice against immigrants under whistle-blowerprotection.Once again, to the extent that OIG is fighting corruption at USCIS,or even the appearance thereof, we will strongly support OIG.However, OIG has clearly gone beyond its expertise in this Reportin alleging that Mr. Mayorkas's EB5 innovations are at fault, OIGhas failed to understand institutionalized bureaucratic license forarbitrariness at USCIS, and in particular, OIG has assumed thatstatus-quo-ante-Mayorkas at USCIS was somehow pristine or in anyway appropriate behavior by a government agency. It is thesemistakes by OIG that stand to imperil whatever other merit thisReport may have. We suggest that this Report be read narrowly - asto improper influence and not as to improper policy. Read withinsuch narrow confines, OIG has our strong support to dissuadecorrupt behavior by career politicians and career bureaucratsalike.
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